Elite Schooling 

Jews in Modern Central European Society 


Viktor Karady : Elite Schooling 

Courses (each of the 8 sessions of 150 minutes except the first) will be divided into two parts

 - a lecture giving an overview of the historical problem areas of elite education and its institutional development since the Middle Ages till the industrial societies with a special focus on Central Europe. (Lecture summaries will be distributed to those interested.) 

 - a discussion of a number of specific studies concerning socio-historical problems of elite education (such as measurement of educational development, concepts of ‘culture’ and ‘civilisation’, ‘overschooling’, the learned professions and processes of professionalisation, , factors of scientific productivity, economic uses of education, professionalisation, national policies of education, etc.). These are based upon mandatory readings, 1 or 2 for each session (altogether 31-50 pages approximately) and the study of data files, specially prepared for some of the sessions. 

There will be a written exam paper in the last session. The final mark will be based on three activities : (1) participation in the discussion of the readings and the data files (30 %), (2) a course paper based on personal readings, for instance a critical report on a book or a larger study relative to educational problems in one or several East Central European societies (30 %), (3) an exam paper (40 %) appealing to knowledge gained from both the lectures, the files and the readings. 
1.Elite education and its social functions. 

    The concept of education and elite training. Its meaning in terms of social reproduction and its agencies : the family, the peer groups, the extra-mural organisations, the school institutions. The social functions of historically established elite schooling : elite repro-duction and legitimation, mobility towards and integration into elites, the fragmentation and internal stratification of elites, cultural assimilation of non dominant elite groups, professional training of would-be members of service elites, cultural and cognitive functions (certification and production of symbolic goods and competences for their use). 

    Reading : Fritz K. Ringer, Education and Society in Modern Europe (Introduction, Conceps and Hypotheses) - in READER

2. Structural aspects of elite education in East Central Europe (19. And 20. Century)  Duality of educational tracks (primary and `long` or elite tracks). The organisation of the two tracks, especially the secondary (gymnasium, realschule, vocational schools) and the higher (universities, polytechnics, vocational academies). Growing state control and institutional openness to the solvent demand (except for cases of numerus clausus). The problem of the language(s) of teaching and the conflicts involved in `nationalised` educa-tional markets. Specificities of the social recruitment of elite education. In-built mecanisms of conservatism. The impact of Western models (Prussian, French, British, American) in various countries. 
Readings : S. Mauersberg, « The Educational System and Democratisation of Society in Poland » - in READER 

J. Zarnowski, « The Learned Professions in Poland » 

3. Problem areas and methods in the social history of elite education. 

Oral and written cultural traditions. The economics of elite educational supply and demand : resources mobilised, the agencies of educational investments (the Churches, the State, private bodies), their cost efficiency, the share of costs, etc. A market dominated by the supply. Relationship between educational supply and demand. Social inequalities of access to schools (by social class, degrees of urbanisation, ethnicity, denomination, family size, etc.). The impact of schooling on various social strata. The differential uses of educational credentials in different strata and groups. The problem of the structure of the schooling provision : its internal prestige hierarchy (among institutions, schooling tracks, disciplines taught, etc.), its density per population unit, the composition of its teaching corps, the definition of knowledge conveyed, certified and legitimated via schooling. Readings : N. Elias, « Sociogenesis of the Difference between Kultur and Zivilisation in German Usage » - in READER  L. O’Boyle, « The Problem of an Excesss of Educated Men in Western Europe, 1800-1850 » - in READER 4. Universities and higher education (a) : from medieval foundations to nationalisation (19. Century)  Antecedents in antiquity, the `dark centuries` of Christian Europe and the late medieval foundations of cathedral schools and universities. Christian-monastic, Jewish and Muslim traditions of learning ere the 13. Century. Organisation of early universities (`nations`, the liberal arts, the growth of the network, the status of students and masters). The cases of Prague and Cracow. Early instances of the `nationalisation` of learning first with the Hussites and the Bohemian Brethren and later with the Reformation in Europe. Early modern universities in the political conflict area of Reformation and Counter-Reformation. Readings : J. Verger, « Patterns of Medieval Universities » J. Bowen, « The Society of Jesus » (A History of Western Education

5. Universities and higher education (b) : emergence of `national` academic systems 

The introduction of national languages and non classical curricula in universities since the 18. Century. The impact of Halle, Göttingen and the Humboldt University in Berlin as well as the Napoleonian Université in East Central Europe. The new standards of scholarship, teaching and specialisation. Organisation of research universities and the `national` academies of emerging Central European nation States and empires. Nation building and universities. The cases of Russia, the Habs-burg Empire and its internal academic differentiation exemplified by the Polish universities in Cracow and Lemberg, by the Hungarian universities in Budapest and Kolozsvár, by the German and Czech universities in Prague. Academic modernisa-tion : switch from Latin to national languages, reconstruction of professional curri-cula, introduction of `national disciplines`, response to demands from professional markets, extension of social recruitment, etc. Readings : P.D. Alston, « The Dynamics of Educational Expansion in Russia » 

D. R. Brower, « Social Stratification in Russian Higher Education » 

6. The historical foundations of secondary education 

Cloister schools, city parish schools and the emergence of Latin grammar schools. Reformation, Counter-Reformation and the denominational gymnasiums and academies. The abundance of educational supply by Jesuits, Piarists, Benedictines, Cistercians, Prémontrées, Franciscans, Minorites on the one hand, Protestant colleges 

on the other hand. Organisation (Ratio studiorum) and success of the Jesuit network, a world wide scheme for pre-modern Catholic elite training. Differences and convergences in the building up of all Catholic and all European and more locally controlled Protestant college networks. The nationalisation of the college network after the abolition of the Society of Jesus (1773).

Readings : Ch. McClelland, « Escape from Freedom ? Reflections on German Professionalisation, 1870-1933 » 

P. Svobodny, « The Professionalisation of Czech Physicians » 

7. The modern gymnasium and its variants. 

    Develop ments in pre-partition Poland, in Hungary and in Cisleithenian Austria since the late 18th century. The 1849 Entwurf and the reform of secondary schooling in the Habsburg Monarchy. Curricula and the organisation of studies in classical gymnasiums, in Realschulen, in commercial academies and in B?rgerschulen. Institutional, scholarly, social and regional stratification of the secondary schooling provision in the Dual Monarchy. The connection between secondary and higher education. Social credentials of the Matura

    Readings : J. Ben David, « The Roots of the Differences in Scientific Productivity » 

    K. H. Jarausch, « Higher Education and Social Change, Some Comparative Perspectives » - in READER

8. Special problems of modern elite education 
The development of women`s elite training on various levels and in various countries. The European market of higher education and the international migration of students since de Middle Ages to the present : a case of unequal exchange. Vocational training on the secondary and the higher level. The pre-socialist and the socialt reforms to modernise elite training in Central Europe.
Exam paper.