Jews in Modern Central European Society
|Viktor Karady : Elite Schooling
Courses (each of the 8 sessions of 150 minutes except the first) will
be divided into two parts :
- a lecture giving an overview of the historical problem
areas of elite education and its institutional development since the Middle
Ages till the industrial societies with a special focus on Central Europe.
(Lecture summaries will be distributed to those interested.)
- a discussion of a number of specific studies concerning
socio-historical problems of elite education (such as measurement of educational
development, concepts of ‘culture’ and ‘civilisation’, ‘overschooling’,
the learned professions and processes of professionalisation, , factors
of scientific productivity, economic uses of education, professionalisation,
national policies of education, etc.). These are based upon mandatory
readings, 1 or 2 for each session (altogether 31-50 pages approximately)
and the study of data files, specially prepared for some of the sessions.
There will be a written exam paper in the last session. The final
mark will be based on three activities : (1) participation in the discussion
of the readings and the data files (30 %), (2) a course paper based on
personal readings, for instance a critical report on a book or a larger
study relative to educational problems in one or several East Central European
societies (30 %), (3) an exam paper (40 %) appealing to knowledge gained
from both the lectures, the files and the readings.
1.Elite education and its social functions.
The concept of education and elite training. Its meaning in terms of
social reproduction and its agencies : the family, the peer groups, the
extra-mural organisations, the school institutions. The social functions
of historically established elite schooling : elite repro-duction and legitimation,
mobility towards and integration into elites, the fragmentation and internal
stratification of elites, cultural assimilation of non dominant elite groups,
professional training of would-be members of service elites, cultural and
cognitive functions (certification and production of symbolic goods and
competences for their use).
2. Structural aspects of elite education in East Central Europe (19.
And 20. Century)
Duality of educational tracks (primary and `long` or elite tracks).
The organisation of the two tracks, especially the secondary (gymnasium,
realschule, vocational schools) and the higher (universities, polytechnics,
vocational academies). Growing state control and institutional openness
to the solvent demand (except for cases of numerus clausus). The
problem of the language(s) of teaching and the conflicts involved in `nationalised`
educa-tional markets. Specificities of the social recruitment of elite
education. In-built mecanisms of conservatism. The impact of Western models
(Prussian, French, British, American) in various countries.
Reading : Fritz K. Ringer, Education and Society in
Modern Europe (Introduction, Conceps and Hypotheses) - in READER
Readings : S. Mauersberg, « The Educational System
and Democratisation of Society in Poland » - in READER
J. Zarnowski, « The Learned Professions in Poland »
3. Problem areas and methods in the social history of elite education.
Oral and written cultural traditions. The economics of elite educational
supply and demand : resources mobilised, the agencies of educational investments
(the Churches, the State, private bodies), their cost efficiency, the share
of costs, etc. A market dominated by the supply. Relationship between educational
supply and demand. Social inequalities of access to schools (by social
class, degrees of urbanisation, ethnicity, denomination, family size, etc.).
The impact of schooling on various social strata. The differential uses
of educational credentials in different strata and groups. The problem
of the structure of the schooling provision : its internal prestige hierarchy
(among institutions, schooling tracks, disciplines taught, etc.), its density
per population unit, the composition of its teaching corps, the definition
of knowledge conveyed, certified and legitimated via schooling.
Readings : N. Elias, « Sociogenesis of the Difference
between Kultur and Zivilisation in German Usage » - in READER
L. O’Boyle, « The Problem of an Excesss of Educated Men in Western
Europe, 1800-1850 » - in READER
4. Universities and higher education (a) : from medieval foundations
to nationalisation (19. Century)
Antecedents in antiquity, the `dark centuries` of Christian Europe
and the late medieval foundations of cathedral schools and universities.
Christian-monastic, Jewish and Muslim traditions of learning ere the 13.
Century. Organisation of early universities (`nations`, the liberal arts,
the growth of the network, the status of students and masters). The cases
of Prague and Cracow. Early instances of the `nationalisation` of learning
first with the Hussites and the Bohemian Brethren and later with the Reformation
in Europe. Early modern universities in the political conflict area of
Reformation and Counter-Reformation.
Readings : J. Verger, « Patterns of Medieval Universities
» J. Bowen, « The Society of Jesus » (A History of
5. Universities and higher education (b) : emergence of `national`
The introduction of national languages and non classical curricula
in universities since the 18. Century. The impact of Halle, Göttingen
and the Humboldt University in Berlin as well as the Napoleonian Université
in East Central Europe. The new standards of scholarship, teaching
and specialisation. Organisation of research universities and the `national`
academies of emerging Central European nation States and empires. Nation
building and universities. The cases of Russia, the Habs-burg Empire and
its internal academic differentiation exemplified by the Polish universities
in Cracow and Lemberg, by the Hungarian universities in Budapest and Kolozsvár,
by the German and Czech universities in Prague. Academic modernisa-tion
: switch from Latin to national languages, reconstruction of professional
curri-cula, introduction of `national disciplines`, response to demands
from professional markets, extension of social recruitment, etc.
Readings : P.D. Alston, « The Dynamics of Educational
Expansion in Russia »
D. R. Brower, « Social Stratification in Russian Higher Education
6. The historical foundations of secondary education
Cloister schools, city parish schools and the emergence of Latin grammar
schools. Reformation, Counter-Reformation and the denominational gymnasiums
and academies. The abundance of educational supply by Jesuits, Piarists,
Benedictines, Cistercians, Prémontrées, Franciscans, Minorites
on the one hand, Protestant colleges
on the other hand. Organisation (Ratio studiorum) and success
of the Jesuit network, a world wide scheme for pre-modern Catholic elite
training. Differences and convergences in the building up of all Catholic
and all European and more locally controlled Protestant college networks.
The nationalisation of the college network after the abolition of the Society
of Jesus (1773).
Readings : Ch. McClelland, « Escape from Freedom ? Reflections
on German Professionalisation, 1870-1933 »
P. Svobodny, « The Professionalisation of Czech Physicians »
7. The modern gymnasium and its variants.
Develop ments in pre-partition Poland, in Hungary and in Cisleithenian
Austria since the late 18th century. The 1849 Entwurf
and the reform of secondary schooling in the Habsburg Monarchy. Curricula
and the organisation of studies in classical gymnasiums, in Realschulen,
in commercial academies and in B?rgerschulen.
Institutional, scholarly, social and regional stratification of the secondary
schooling provision in the Dual Monarchy. The connection between secondary
and higher education. Social credentials of the Matura.
8. Special problems of modern elite education
Readings : J. Ben David, « The Roots of the Differences
in Scientific Productivity »
K. H. Jarausch, « Higher Education and Social Change, Some Comparative
Perspectives » - in READER
The development of women`s elite training on various levels
and in various countries. The European market of higher education and the
international migration of students since de Middle Ages to the present
: a case of unequal exchange. Vocational training on the secondary and
the higher level. The pre-socialist and the socialt reforms to modernise
elite training in Central Europe.