PhD Course             MA Course

SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE UPON THE ROAD OF DEVELOPMENT/MODERNIZATION (SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS)

ROUMEN DASKALOV

Recurrent Visiting Associate Professor

KEY WORDS: Balkans, Europeanization, modernization, underdevelopment, nation building and nationalism, etatism, industrial protectionism, traditional way of life, autochtonism, agrarian ideology, the New Right, authoritarian regimes, political culture, the Balkan "Other", etc.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The course deals with various problems of the modern development in the Balkans since the middle of the nineteenth century. The concept of modernization will be discussed and some theories of modernization will be presented. The Balkans at the initial point of their modern development will be projected against a historical background (of encounters between civilizations, cultural legacies, etc.) within a given natural habitat. We will consider the impact of the dynamic West, the processes it initiated, and the reactions it provoked. Nationalism and nation building are part of this story. The difficulties and impasses of modernization under the auspices of the independent Balkan states will be discussed. Special emphasis will be laid on the socio-cultural aspects of modernizing development: cultural influences and ideas, literacy and education (res. cultural elites), mentalities and life styles of the social strata, etc. and attention will be paid to the specific interaction between "modern" and "traditional" in their variegated articulations and intertwining. Political ideologies and political culture are among the topics of the syllabus. Throughout the course comparisons between the Balkan states and societies will be made (e.g. as to the land tenure, the social structure, the ruling elites, state policies, the strength of the Left and Right, etc.) with the purpose of spelling out the contrasts and similarities. Finally, we will deal with the negative images of the Balkan "Other" elaborated in the West and how this stigmatization is coped with in the region.

COURSE ASSIGNMENTS:

1. Attendance and active involvement in class discussions are expected from all participants in the course. This presupposes the reading of the required readings. Please, note that though any participation in those discussions is welcome, only meaningful contributions have a positive value in the assessment. In case someone is not able to attend the weekly Seminar for some good reasons, please, inform me in advance (in person or via E-mail).

2. The grading at the end of the course will be formed on the basis of three elements: contribution to class discussions (20%), an oral presentation (30%), and the final paper (50%).

3. Everybody is expected to make an oral presentation - some 20-30 minutes - once during the course. The presentation should focus on (some aspect of) one of the themes that make up the contents of the syllabus. The topic should be agreed with me in advance. It is advisable (though not obligatory) for those presenting to supply handouts (1-2 pages) with the basic points of their presentation to all participants in order to facilitate comprehension and the subsequent discussion.

4. The final (term) paper should be 15-20 pp. long. It should be relevant to one or more of the themes covered in the syllabus. The topic and main ideas should be consulted with me in advance. I will not accept papers outside the scope of the syllabus (and with no bearing to it) and such that have been written for another purpose. The paper should follow the basic rules and conventions of a scholarly text, such as having a clearly defined problem (where possible a "hypothesis"), consistent formulation of the basic ideas, internal organization of the text (to facilitate reading and comprehension), correct citation of sources (and enough authoritative sources), etc. It should be written in good English.
 

CONTENTS:

Theme 1: Characteristics of modernization: in the economy, in the society, in the polity, in knowledge and culture, etc. "Modern" and "traditional", the strains and casualties of modernization.

"Modernization, Modernity" - Art. in: Ritter, Harry. Dictionary of Concepts in History. New York - Westport - London: The Greenwood Press, 1986, 273-277.

Black, Cyril. The Dynamics of Modernization. A Study in Comparative History. New York, Evanston and London: Harper & Row, 1966, 5-34.

Bendix, Reinhard. Tradition and Modernity Reconsidered. In: Comparative Studies in Society and History, 9: 3 (1967), 318-344.

Lerner, Daniel. The Passing of Traditional Society: Modernizing the Middle East. New York: The Free Press,1958, 47-54.

Additional:

Cipolla, Carlo. Literacy and Development in the West. Baltimore, Maryland 1969.

Hirschman, Albert. A Generalized Linkage Approach to Development. - In: Hirschman, Albert., Essays in Trespassing. Economics to Politics and Beyond. Cambridge 1981, 59-96.

Tipps, Dean. Modernization Theory and the Comparative Study of Societies: A Critical Perspective. - Comparative Studies in Society and History. 15 (1973), 199-226.

Theme 2: Theories of development/modernization: "economic growth" theories, underdevelopment and world system theories, "demonstration effect" (imitation) theories, etc. Methodological notes on "preconditions" and "obstacles" to development. The European experience.

Harrison, David. The Sociology of Modernization and Development. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988, 29-32, 57-61, 97-99, 175-183.

Senghaas, Dieter. The European Experience. A Historical Critique of Development Theory. Leamington Spa/Dover, New Hampshire: Berg Publishers, 1985, 13-37, 46-53, 63-65.

Hirshman, Albert. Obstacles to Development: A Classification and a Quasi-Vanishing Act. - Hirschman, Albert, A Bias for Hope. Essays on Development in Latin America. New Haven, London 1971, 312-327.

Additional:

Gerschenkron, Alexander. Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective. - In: Gerschenkron, Alexander. Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1966, 5-30.

Gerschenkron, Alexander. Reflections on the Concept of "Prerequisites" of Modern Industrialization. - In: Gerschenkron, Alexander. Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1966, 31-51.

Myrdal, Gunnar. Economic Theory and Underdeveloped Regions. Bombay 1966.

Theme 3: The Balkans in natural and civilization contexts. Natural habitat: mountains and forests, rivers and roads as factors in the historical development of the region. Cultural legacies: the Byzantine legacy, the Orthodox Church, the Ottoman legacy. Geopolitical factors: "crossroads" position, focal point of Great Power interests, etc.

Wolff, Robert. The Balkans in Our Times. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass. 1974, 10-24, 50-69.

Stavrianos, Leften. The Balkans since 1453. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1958, 1-32, 81-95.

Todorova, Maria. Imagining the Balkans. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, 161-183.

Additional:

Carter, Francis. An Historical Geography of the Balkans. London - New York - San Francisco: Academic Press, 1977 (the relevant initial parts).

Stoianovich, Traian. The Conquering Balkan Orthodox Merchant. - Journal of Economic History, 20 (1960) 2, 234-313 (reprinted in: Traian Stoianovich. Between East and West. The Balkan and Mediterranean Worlds. Vol. 2 (Economies and Societies). New York: New Rochelle, 1992, 1-77.

Jelavich, Charles and Barbara Jelavich, The Establishment of the Balkan National States, 1804-1920. Seattle, London: Univerity of Washington Press, 1977, 3-25.

Jelavich, Barbara. History of the Balkans. Vol. 1, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1983, 39-168.

Theme 4: The impact of the West on South-East European societies. Early "Europeanization" ("Westernization") in the form of "fashions", implements and life-styles. The "demonstration effect" and its consequences. The international trade road to a semi-colony: Rumania.

Stavrianos, Leften. The Influence of the West on the Balkans. In: Charles and Barbara Jelavich (eds.) The Balkans in Transition. Hemden, Conn. 1974, 184-226.

Janos, Andrew. The Politics of Backwardness in Hungary 1825-1945. Princeton, New Jersey 1982, 313-316.

Crampton, Richard. Modernization: Conscious, Unconscious and Irrational. - In: Ronald Schoenfeld (ed.) Industrialisierung und gesellschaftlicher Wandel in Suedosteuropa. Muenchen: Suedosteuropa-Gesellschaft, 125-134.

Chirot, Daniel. Social Change in a Peripheral Society. The Creation of a Balkan Colony. New York, San Francisco, London 1976, 159-164.

Stavrianos, Leften. The Balkans since 1453. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1958, 414-419.

Additional:

Jelavich, Barbara. History of the Balkans. Vol. 2, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1983, 45-50.

Theme 5: The establishment of independent Balkan states. Introduction of Western-type institutions: representative democracy, administrative apparatus and an army, formal law, etc. Their functioning and malfunctioning within agrarian societies.

Roberts, Henry. Rumania. Political Problems of an Agrarian State. New Haven, London 1951, 108-116.

Crampton, Richard. Bulgaria, 1878-1918. A History. New York. Columbia University Press, 1983 (East European Monographs, Boulder), 325-328.

Janos, Andrew. The Politics of Backwardness in Continental Europe. - World Politics. 41: 3 (1989), 337-347.

Additional:

Sundhaussen, Holm. Institutionen und institutioneller Wandel in den Balkanlèndern aus historischer Perspektive. - In: Johannes Papalekas (ed.) Institutionen und institutioneller Wandel in S_dosteuropa. M_nchen: S_dosteuropa-Gesellschaft, 1994.

Jelavich, Barbara. History of the Balkans. Vol. 1, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1983.

Theme 6: Populations into nations. Processes of national formation before liberation and under the auspices of the nation state. The role of education, of military conscription, of the media and communications, of political mobilization, of the national market, etc. Cultural homogenization.

Clarke, James. Education and National Consciousness in the Balkans. In: Clarke. James, The Pen and the Sword. Studies in Bulgarian History. (ed. Dennis Hupchik) East European Monographs, Boulder, 1988, 24-57.

Seton-Watson, Hugh. Eastern Europe between the Wars, 1918-1941. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1945, 138-145.

Weber, Eugen. Peasants into Frenchmen. The Modernization of Rural France, 1870-1914. London: Chatto & Windus, 1977, 485-496.

Additional:

Deutsch, Karl. Nationalism and its Alternatives. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1969, 3-20, 43-46.

Theme 7: The closed life-world of the peasant. Rural economy. Familism as a way of life. The role of custom. Traditional mentalities. The rural - urban cleavage.

Tomasevich, Joso, Peasants, Politics and Economic Change in Yugoslavia. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1955, 570-600.

Sanders, Irving. A Balkan village. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1949, 144-160.

Chayanov, A. The Theory of Peasant Economy. Homewood, Illinois, 1966, 1-13.

Theme 8: Efforts of modernization in the Balkans. The outstanding and ambiguous role of the state (etatism). Policies of industrialization (and protection of "infant industries"). Advance in the cultural sphere (education and literacy) and in healthcare. Agents of change. Inroads in the insular (peasant) world.

Spulber, Nicolas. The Role of the State in Economic Growth in Eastern Europe since 1860. - In: Hugh Aitken (ed.) The State and Economic Growth. New York 1959, 255-277.

Stavrianos, Leften. The Balkans since 1453. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1958, 419-424, 593-608.

Sanders, Irving. A Balkan village. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1949, 161-178, 183-195.

Additional:

Daskalov, Roumen. Development in the Balkan Periphery prior to World War Second: Some Reflections. - Suedost-Forschungen, Muenchen, 1999.

Spulber, Nicolas. The State and Economic Development in Eastern Europe. New York 1966.

Milward, Alan and Samuel Saul. The Development of the Economies of Continental Europe 1850-1914. London 1977, 427-465.

Warriner, Doreen. Economics of Peasant Farming. London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1939, 140-168.

Warriner, Doreen. General Introduction: Contrasts and Comparisons. - In: Doreen Warriner (ed.) Contrasts in Emerging Societies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1965, 1-25.

Theme 9: Difficulties and impasses of modernization in the Balkans (until World War II). Economic problems: (largely self-subsistent) peasant economies, weak industries, lagging marketization, fiscal mismanagement and foreign loans. Demographic problems: population explosion, population pressure on the land ("overpopulation"). Social problems: the "peasant question", overblown bureaucracies (civil and military), workers in a process of formation, no decisive "bourgeois transformation", weakness of the "middle classes". Political problems: the state as accommodation for a political class and an instrument of income transfer. Militarism and its consequences.

Same literature as in theme 7 plus

Janos, Andrew. The Politics of Backwardness in Continental Europe. - World Politics. 41: 3 (1989), 337-347.

Seton-Watson, Hugh. Eastern Europe between the Wars, 1918-1941. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1945, 97-99, 105-110.

Theme 10: Reactions against the Western influence and peripherization. The affirmation of "the native" and of "tradition" (autochtonism). Populists (narodniki) and peasantists, slavophils, self-glorifying "theories" ("latinism" in Rumania, the Hun theory in Bulgaria, parallels with "turanianism" in Hungary, etc.). Their compensatory functions.

Hitchins, Keith. Rumania 1866-1947. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994, 298-318.

Stoianovich, Traian. The Pattern of Serbian Intellectual Evolution. - Comparative Studies in Society and History. 1 (1958/9), 257-272.

Daskalov, Roumen. Ideas about, and Reactions to Modernization in the Balkans. - East European Quarterly, 31: 2 (1997), 161-171.

Winternitz, Judith. The "Turanian" Hypothesis and Magyar Nationalism in the Nineteenth Century. - In: Sussez, Roland and J. Eade (eds.) Culture and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Columbus, Ohio: Slavica Publishers, 1983, 143-155s.

Additional:

Pinto, Vivian. The Civic and Aestetic Ideal of Bulgarian Narodnik Writers. - Slavonic and East European Review, XXXII, N 79, June, 1954, 344-366.

Hitchins, Keith. Gindirea: Nationalism in a Spiritual Guise. - In: Kenneth Jowitt (ed.) Social Change in Romania 1860-1940. Berkeley: University of California, 1978, 140-173.

Milojkovic-Djuric, Jelena. Panslavism and National Identity in Russia and in the Balkans 1830-1880: Images of the Self and Others. New York: Columbia University Press (East European Monographs, Boulder), 1994, 54-75.

Theme 11: Ideologies, movements, regimes. Agrarianism and the peasantist movements (the "green revolution"). Socialism (communism). Right-wing ideas and movements. The authoritarian regimes between the wars. The role of the monarchy and of the military. Political culture.

Mitrany, David. Marx against the Peasant. A Study in Social Dogmatism. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1951, 118-137.

Stavrianos, Leften. The Balkans since 1453. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1958, 608-615.

Bell, John, Peasants in Power. Alexander Stamboliiski and the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, 1899-1923. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1977, 59-73.

Janos, Andrew. The One-Party State and Social Mobilization: East Europe between the Wars. In: Samuel Huntington and Clement Moore (eds.) Authoritarian Politics in Modern Society. New York, London 1970, 204-235.

Sugar, Peter. Conclusion. - In: Peter Sugar (ed.) Native Fascism in the Successor States 1918-1945. Santa Barbara, California, 1971, 147-156.

Additional:

Moore, Barrington. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Boston, 1966, 413-432.

Almond, Gabriel and Sidney Verba. The Civic Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.

Hitchins, Keith. Rumania, 1866-1947. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994, 319-334.

Wolff, Robert. The Balkans in Our Times. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass. 1974, 101-120.

Seton-Watson, Hugh. Eastern Europe between the Wars, 1918-1941. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1945, 256-267.

Sugar, Peter. Continuity and Change in Eastern European Authoritarianism: Autocracy, Fascism, and Communism. East European Quarterly, 18 (1984), 1, 1-23.

Stoianovich, Traian. The Social Foundations of Balkan Politics, 1750-1941. - In: Charles and Barbara Jelavich (eds.) The Balkans in Transition, 312-345.

Roberts, Henry. Politics in a Small State: The Balkan Example. In: Charles and Barbara Jelavich (eds.) The Balkans in Transition. Archon Books, 1974, 376-395.

Theme 12: "Balkanizing" the Balkans. The Balkan "Other" under the Western gaze: formative forces of the image. Balkan "master themes" and key metaphors. Reactions to the stigma: rejection versus interiorization, passing over to neighbors (East and South), defiant positive revaluation. Manipulation of identities.

Said, Edward. Orientalism. London and Henley: Harmondsworth, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978, 19-28.

Todorova, Maria. Imagining the Balkans, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1997, 7-20, 184-189.

CONTENTS:

Bell, John, Peasants in Power. Alexander Stamboliiski and the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, 1899-1923. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1977, 59-73.

Black, Cyril. The Dynamics of Modernization. A Study in Comparative History. New York, Evanston and London: Harper & Row, 1966, 5-34.

Bendix, Reinhard. Tradition and Modernity Reconsidered. In: Comparative Studies in Society and History, 9: 3 (1967), 318-344.

Chayanov, A. The Theory of Peasant Economy. Homewood, Illinois, 1966, 1-13.

Crampton, Richard. Modernization: Conscious, Unconscious and Irrational. - In: Ronald Schoenfeld (ed.) Industrialisierung und gesellschaftlicher Wandel in Suedosteuropa. Muenchen: Suedosteuropa-Gesellschaft, 125-134.

Crampton, Richard. Bulgaria, 1878-1918. A History. New York. Columbia University Press, 1983 (East European Monographs, Boulder), 325-328.

Clarke, James. Education and National Consciousness in the Balkans. In: Clarke. James, The Pen and the Sword. Studies in Bulgarian History. (ed. Dennis Hupchik) East European Monographs, Boulder, 1988, 24-57.

Chirot, Daniel. Social Change in a Peripheral Society. The Creation of a Balkan Colony. New York, San Francisco, London 1976, 159-164.

Daskalov, Roumen. Ideas about, and Reactions to Modernization in the Balkans. - East European Quarterly, 31: 2 (1997), 161-171.

Harrison, David. The Sociology of Modernization and Development. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988, 29-32, 57-61, 97-99, 175-183.

Hirshman, Albert. Obstacles to Development: A Classification and a Quasi-Vanishing Act. - Hirschman, Albert, A Bias for Hope. Essays on Development in Latin America. New Haven, London 1971, 312-327.

Hitchins, Keith. Rumania 1866-1947. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994, 298-318.

Janos, Andrew. The Politics of Backwardness in Hungary 1825-1945. Princeton, New Jersey 1982, 313-316, 337-347.

Lerner, Daniel. The Passing of Traditional Society: Modernizing the Middle East. New York: The Free Press,1958, 47-54.

Mitrany, David. Marx against the Peasant. A Study in Social Dogmatism. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1951, 118-137.

Paine, Stanley, Fascism. Comparison and Definition, The University of Wisconsin Press, 110-121.

Ritter, Harry. Dictionary of Concepts in History. New York - Westport - London: The Greenwood Press, 1986, 273-277.

Roberts, Henry. Rumania. Political Problems of an Agrarian State. New Haven, London 1951, 108-116.

Said, Edward. Orientalism. London and Henley: Harmondsworth, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978, 19-28.

Sanders, Irving. A Balkan village. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1949, 144-160, 161-178, 183-195.

Senghaas, Dieter. The European Experience. A Historical Critique of Development Theory. Leamington Spa/Dover, New Hampshire: Berg Publishers, 1985, 13-37, 46-53, 63-65.

Seton-Watson, Hugh. Eastern Europe between the Wars, 1918-1941. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1945, 138-145, 97-99, 105-110.

Spulber, Nicolas. The Role of the State in Economic Growth in Eastern Europe since 1860. - In: Hugh Aitken (ed.) The State and Economic Growth. New York 1959, 255-277.

Stavrianos, Leften. The Balkans since 1453. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1958, 1-32, 81-95, 184-226, 419-424, 593-608, 608-615.

Stoianovich, Traian. The Pattern of Serbian Intellectual Evolution. - Comparative Studies in Society and History. 1 (1958/9), 257-272.

Tomasevich, Joso, Peasants, Politics and Economic Change in Yugoslavia. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1955, 570-600.

Todorova, Maria. Imagining the Balkans. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, 161-183.

Todorova, Maria. Imagining the Balkans, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1997, 7-20, 184-189.

Weber, Eugen. Peasants into Frenchmen. The Modernization of Rural France, 1870-1914. London: Chatto & Windus, 1977, 485-496.

Winternitz, Judith. The "Turanian" Hypothesis and Magyar Nationalism in the Nineteenth Century. - In: Sussez, Roland and J. Eade (eds.) Culture and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Columbus, Ohio: Slavica Publishers, 1983, 143-155s.